Paper published by the Inria: A comprehensive study of Convergent and Commutative Replicated Data Types .
Presenting an alternative to synchronization in distributed storage, that instead relies on the data structure design to handle concurrent operations by distributed actors. This produces eventually consistent systems by definition so it does not fit all problems, but since it ensures all actors will converge to the same data it offers very interesting properties. The paper explains the theory to prove that a data structure holds CRDT properties, and explains some of them.
One of the drawbacks is that the actual space used by structures grows with usage even if the externally visible size does not increase. This needs synchronization for a kind of garbage collection, but it can be postponed to any time after the changes occur.